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數據產(chǎn)權新范式下的企業(yè)數據持有者權
網(wǎng)絡(luò )安全與數據治理
萬(wàn)美秀
南昌大學(xué)法學(xué)院
摘要: 企業(yè)數據權屬不清給數據產(chǎn)品市場(chǎng)化交易帶來(lái)巨大障礙,延用傳統產(chǎn)權保護模式已經(jīng)捉襟見(jiàn)肘,如何尋求更為合理的產(chǎn)權配置方案已成為學(xué)界日益關(guān)注的焦點(diǎn)?!稊祿畻l》創(chuàng )新性提出構建數據產(chǎn)權“三權分置”的新范式,賦予企業(yè)數據持有者權,是促進(jìn)數據社會(huì )化流通和數字經(jīng)濟發(fā)展的必然要求。但該政策指引并不能直接與法定權利作等價(jià)轉換,需要通過(guò)立法程序予以法定化,個(gè)人利益和共同善則為其權利建構提供了正當化依據。從本質(zhì)上看,企業(yè)數據持有者權是一種對數據的“弱支配權”,其淡化了所有權的絕對排他支配性,強調企業(yè)對數據的事實(shí)支配控制。在權利內容上,包含持有、處理、收益和處分權能,旨在實(shí)現數據的使用與交換雙重價(jià)值,以此化解企業(yè)數據上承載的多元主體利益沖突,保護企業(yè)合法權益,實(shí)現數據要素價(jià)值。
中圖分類(lèi)號:D922文獻標識碼:ADOI:10.19358/j.issn.2097-1788.2024.03.007
引用格式:萬(wàn)美秀.數據產(chǎn)權新范式下的企業(yè)數據持有者權[J].網(wǎng)絡(luò )安全與數據治理,2024,43(3):40-48.
The rights of enterprise data holders under the new paradigm of data property rights
Wan Meixiu
Law School, Nanchang University
Abstract: The unclear ownership of enterprise data has brought huge obstacles to the marketization of data products, and the extension of traditional property rights protection mode has been limited. How to seek a more reasonable property rights allocation scheme has become the focus of increasing attention in academia. "Data Article 20" innovatively proposes a new paradigm of constructing "three rights separation" of data property rights, and endows enterprise data holders with rights, which is an inevitable requirement for promoting the socialization of data circulation and the development of digital economy. However, the policy guidelines can not be directly equivalent to the legal rights conversion, need to be legalized through the legislative process, individual interests and common good for the construction of their rights to provide a legitimate basis. In essence, the right of enterprise data holder is a kind of "weak domination" of data, which downplays the absolute exclusive domination of ownership and emphasizes the fact domination and control of enterprise data. In the content of rights, including holding, processing, income and disposal rights, the purpose is to realize the dual value of data use and exchange, so as to resolve the conflict of interests of multiple subjects carried by enterprise data, protect the legitimate rights and interests of enterprises, and realize the value of data elements.
Key words : data property rights; separation of three powers; data flow; enterprise data holder right

引言

當前,全球已經(jīng)邁向數字經(jīng)濟時(shí)代,數字技術(shù)正以前所未有的方式重塑世界經(jīng)濟,改變人類(lèi)的生產(chǎn)和生活條件。建設數字中國是數字時(shí)代推進(jìn)中國式現代化的重要引擎,是構筑國家競爭新優(yōu)勢的有力支撐。數據作為關(guān)鍵生產(chǎn)要素的價(jià)值日益凸顯,深入滲透到經(jīng)濟社會(huì )各領(lǐng)域全過(guò)程,數字經(jīng)濟逐步成為全球經(jīng)濟增長(cháng)的新動(dòng)力、新引擎,成為重組全球要素資源、重塑全球經(jīng)濟結構、改變全球競爭格局的關(guān)鍵力量。在此背景下,數據已然成為企業(yè)的一種重要新型資產(chǎn),海量數據背后蘊藏的巨大商業(yè)價(jià)值則成為企業(yè)數據競爭糾紛頻發(fā)的直接原因。對企業(yè)而言,誰(shuí)持有數據,誰(shuí)就直接掌握了競爭優(yōu)勢。當前企業(yè)數據權屬不清給數據流通交易帶來(lái)了巨大障礙,成為實(shí)踐中無(wú)法規避而又棘手的難題,也是企業(yè)數據競爭糾紛頻發(fā)的深層原因。由此,企業(yè)數據的法律保護問(wèn)題也日益成為學(xué)界關(guān)注的焦點(diǎn),我國對企業(yè)數據的產(chǎn)權界定一直存在較大爭議,學(xué)界對數據是否賦權、賦予何種權利保護尚未達成共識,立法者對此探索也僅停留于政策制定層面,并未上升至法律層面。


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http://www.ihrv.cn/resource/share/2000005933


作者信息:

萬(wàn)美秀

南昌大學(xué)法學(xué)院,江西南昌330031


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